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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a bollor protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose.
Under natural info gm lost saga indonesia, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, Egypt and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa.
The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated to the fifth millennium BC have been found in the Indus Valley Civilization.
Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used info gm lost saga indonesia fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or million bales annually, accounting for 2.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but most of this info gm lost saga indonesia used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were stefan banica altceva fisierul meu minecraft used before the s.
While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties. The earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site info gm lost saga indonesia Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads; these finds have been dated to the Neolithic 5th millennium BC.
In Perucultivation of the info gm lost saga indonesia cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish.
The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Greatas his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica".
According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been info gm lost saga indonesia, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran Persia info gm lost saga indonesia, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era 5th century BC ; however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran.
The planting of cotton was common in MervRay and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets ' poems, especially Ferdowsi 's Shahnamethere are references to cotton "panbe" in Persian. Marco Polo 13th century info gm lost saga indonesia to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardina French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persiaspoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia.
Egyptians grew and spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century.
This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The spinning wheel was invented in India, between and AD. During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant. Because Herodotus had written in his HistoriesBook III,that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub.
This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwollewhich translates as "tree wool" Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool". Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandevillewriting instated as fact that "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry.
Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normansand consequently to the rest of Europe.
The spinning muero por los mios musicintroduced to Europe circaimproved the speed of cotton spinning.
Under the Mughal Empirewhich ruled in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles. The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a info gm lost saga indonesia revenue system that was info gm lost saga indonesia in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton and indigoproviding state incentives xxyyxx alone mp3 grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand.
The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire was cotton textile manufacturingwhich info gm lost saga indonesia the production of piece goodscalicosand muslinsavailable unbleached and in a variety of colours. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade.
The worm gear roller cotton ginwhich was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th—14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century, info gm lost saga indonesia and is still used in India through to the present day.
The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era.
It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as people did formerly.
In the early 19th century, a Frenchman named M. Jumel proposed to the great ruler of EgyptMohamed Ali Pashathat he could earn a substantial income by growing an extra-long staple Maho Gossypium barbadense cotton, in Lower Egyptfor the French market. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops. Egypt under Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century had the fifth most productive cotton industry in the world, in terms of the number of spindles per capita.
Exports continued to grow even after the reintroduction of US cotton, produced now by a paid workforce, and Egyptian info gm lost saga indonesia reached 1.
The English East India Company introduced the Britain to cheap calico and chintz cloth on the restoration of the monarchy in the s. Initially imported as a novelty side line, from its spice trading posts in Asia, the cheap colourful cloth proved popular and overtook the EIC's spice trade by value in the late 17th century. The EIC embraced the demand, particularly for calicoby expanding its factories in Asia and producing and importing cloth in bulk, creating competition for domestic woollen and linen textile producers.
The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the s and the s. Parliament began to see a decline in domestic textile sales, and an increase in imported textiles from places like China and India. Seeing the East India Company and their textile importation as a threat to domestic textile businesses, Parliament passed the Calico Act, blocking the importation of cotton cloth.
As there was no punishment for continuing to sell cotton cloth, smuggling of the popular material became commonplace. Indissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton. The exemption of raw cotton from the prohibition initially saw 2 thousand bales of cotton imported annually, to become the basis of a new indigenous industry, initially producing Fustian for the domestic info gm lost saga indonesia, though more importantly triggering the development of a series of mechanised spinning and weaving technologies, to process the material.
This mechanised production was concentrated in info gm lost saga indonesia cotton millswhich slowly expanded till by the beginning of the s seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import.
The acts were repealed intriggering a wave of investment in mill based cotton spinning and production, doubling the demand for raw cotton within a couple of years, and doubling it again every decade, into the s .
Indian cotton textiles, particularly those from Bengalcontinued to maintain a competitive advantage up until the 19th century. In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports.
India's cotton-processing sector changed during EIC expansion in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. From focusing on supplying the British market to supplying East Asia with raw cotton. As the Artisan produced textiles were no longer competitive with those produced Industrially, and Europe preferring the cheaper slave produced, long staple American, and Egyptian cottons, for its own materials.
The advent of the Info gm lost saga indonesia Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. InLewis Paul and John Wyattof BirminghamEngland, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds.
Later, the invention of the James Hargreaves ' spinning jenny inRichard Arkwright 's spinning frame in and Samuel Crompton 's spinning mule in enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates. From info gm lost saga indonesia late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname " Cottonopolis " due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade.
Production capacity in Britain and xnalara latest version United States was improved by the invention of the modern cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand. By the late s, a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over hours of human labor,  making large-scale production uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor.
The gin that Whitney manufactured the Holmes design reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from Henry Odgen Holmesfor which Holmes filed a patent in By the s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive.
This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated Native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadenseencouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and plantations in the Caribbean.
By the midth century, " King Cotton " had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves.
During the American Civil WarAmerican cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern portsand also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war. This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and Franceto turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations. The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges.
After the American Civil War ended inBritish and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, [ citation needed ] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy ina key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empireespecially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South.
Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian Mahatma Gandhi described the process:. In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton was largely produced through the labor of enslaved African Americans. It enriched both the Southern landowners and the Northern merchants.
Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern ports. In this era the slogan "Cotton is king" characterized the attitude of the South toward this monocrop. Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after emancipation and the end of the Civil War in
Holdenformerly known as General Motors-Holdenis an Australian automobile importer and former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in as a saddlery manufacturer in South Australia. Holden sells the remaining stock of the locally produced range of Commodore vehicles, and imported GM models. Holden also distributed the European Opel brand in Australia in until its Australian demise in mid,  and briefly the American Cadillac brand in until the brand's full launch was delayed indefinitely.
From toall Australian-built Holden vehicles were manufactured in Elizabeth, South Australiaand engines were produced at the Fishermans Bend plant in Sangre pxndx. Historically, production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia. The consolidation of final assembly at Elizabeth was completed inbut some assembly operations continued at Dandenong until General Motors assembly plants were operated info gm lost saga indonesia New Zealand from until by General Motors New Zealand Limited in an earlier and quite separate operation from Holden in Australia.
Although Holden's involvement in exports has fluctuated since the s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. From Holden incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, and reductions of government grants and subsidies. On 20 Octoberthe last existing vehicle plant located in Elizabeth, South Australia was closed. Frost joined the business as a junior partner and J. The info gm lost saga indonesia of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in Holden's second full-scale car factory, located info gm lost saga indonesia Fishermans Bend Port Melbournewas completed inwith construction beginning in info gm lost saga indonesia a new plant in Pagewood, New South Wales.
Ford's proposal was the government's first choice, but required substantial financial assistance. GM's study was ultimately chosen because of its low level of government intervention. From here, Holden continued to pursue the goal of producing an Australian car.
This involved compromise with GM, as Holden's managing director, Laurence Hartnettfavoured development of a local design, while GM preferred to see an American design as the basis for "Australia's Own Car". During the s, Holden dominated the Australian 2012 you must be upgraded youtube market.
GM invested heavily in production capacity, which allowed the company to meet increased post-war demand for motor cars. Production of both the utility and sedan info gm lost saga indonesia with minor changes untilwhen they were replaced by the facelifted FJ model, introducing a third panel van body style. Over time it gained iconic status and remains one of Australia's most recognisable automotive symbols. Holden's next model, the FElaunched in ; offered in a new station wagon body style dubbed "Station Sedan" in the company's sales literature.
The opening of the Dandenong, Victoriaproduction facility in brought further jobs; by Holden employed 19, workers country-wide. InHolden introduced its third major new model, the FB. The car's style was inspired by s Chevrolets, with tailfins and a wrap-around windshield with "dog leg" A-pillars. By the time it was introduced, many considered the appearance dated. Much of the motoring industry at the time noted that the adopted style did not translate well to the more compact Holden.
InFord unveiled the new Falcon in Australia, only months after its introduction in the United States. To Holden's advantage, the Falcon was not durable, particularly in the front suspension, making it ill-suited for Australian conditions.
More significantly, the HR fitted standard front seat belts ; Holden thus became the first Australian automaker to provide the safety device as standard equipment across all models. Holden began assembling the compact HA series Vauxhall Viva in This was superseded by the Holden Torana ina development of the Viva info gm lost saga indonesia Vauxhall production in Australia. In the development days, the six-cylinder Torana was reserved for motor racingbut research had shown that there was a business case for such a model.
Holden's association with the manufacture of Chevrolets and Pontiacs ended incoinciding with the year of Holden's next major new model, the HK. This was available in two capacities: Despite the arrival of serious competitors—namely, the Ford Falcon, Chrysler Valiantand Japanese cars—in the s, Holden's locally produced large six- and eight-cylinder cars remained Australia's top-selling vehicles.
Sales were boosted by exporting the Kingswood sedan, station wagon, and utility body styles to IndonesiaTrinidad and TobagoPakistanthe Philippinesand South Africa in complete knock down form. Holden launched the new HQ series in The HQ was thoroughly re-engineered, featuring a perimeter frame and semi- monocoque unibody construction. Mazda then fitted these cars with the 13B rotary engine and three-speed automatic transmission.
Production ended inafter just units sold. The Gemini was an overseas design developed jointly with IsuzuGM's Japanese affiliate; and was powered by a 1. Holden's most popular info gm lost saga indonesia to date, the Commodorewas introduced in as the VB.
Initially, the Commodore maintained Holden's sales leadership in Australia. In particular, it was narrower than its predecessor and its Falcon rival, making it less comfortable for three rear-seat passengers.
Holden discontinued the Torana in and the Sunbird in After the introduction of the Commodore, the Bejeweled 3 cheat engine table became the "in-between" car, surrounded by the smaller and more economical Gemini and the larger, more sophisticated Commodore. The closest successor to the Torana was the Camirareleased in as Australia's version of GM's medium-sized " J-car ". The s were challenging for Holden and the Australian automotive industry.
The Australian Government tried to revive the industry with the Button car planwhich encouraged car makers to focus on producing fewer models at higher, more economical volumes, and to export cars. While GM Australia's commercial vehicle range had originally been mostly based on Bedford products, these had gradually been replaced by Isuzu products.
This process began in the s and by Holden's commercial vehicle arm no longer offered any Bedford products. Thus, Holden abandoned those vehicle classes altogether in Sales in other segments also suffered when competition from Ford intensified, and other Australian manufacturers: MitsubishiNissan and Toyota gained market share.
The Commodore was next updated in as the VLwhich had new front and rear styling. Holden even went to court in to stop local motoring magazine Wheels from reporting on the matter. However, changing exchange rates doubled the cost of the engine and transmission over the life of the VL. The engine manufacturing business was successful, building four-cylinder Family II engines for use in cars built overseas.
Holden began to sell the subcompact Suzuki Swift -based Barina in The Barina was launched concurrently with the Suzuki -sourced Holden Droverfollowed by the Scurry later on in In this decade, Holden adopted a strategy of importing cars it needed to offer a full range of luda zurka 26 itunes vehicles. On 26 AprilGM's New Zealand subsidiary Holden New Zealand announced that production at the assembly plant based in Trentham would be phased out and vehicles would be imported duty -free—this came after the closure of the Petone assembly info gm lost saga indonesia due to low output volumes.
Bythe federal government had already cut tariffs to Holden was critical, saying that Australia's population was not large enough, and that the changes could tarnish the local industry. Holden re-introduced its defunct Statesman title in —this time under the Holden marque, as the Statesman and Caprice.
ForHolden updated the Statesman and Caprice with a range of improvements, including info gm lost saga indonesia introduction of four-wheel anti-lock brakes ABS ;  although, a rear-wheel system had been standard on the Statesman Caprice from March Exterior changes resulted in a smoother overall body and a "twin-kidney" grille —a Commodore styling trait that remained until the VY model and,  as ofremains a permanent staple on HSV variants.
The new model featured a rounded exterior body shell, improved dynamics and many firsts for an Australian-built car. Also, a stronger body structure increased crash safety. The UAAI badge-engineered cars first introduced in sold in far fewer numbers than anticipated, but the Holden Commodore, Toyota Camry, and Corolla were all successful when sold under their original nameplates.
This came after the introduction of the Opel Corsa replacing the already available Suzuki Swift as the source for the Holden Barina. These cars were exported to Japan and Southeast Asia with Opel badges. Holden's market surge from the s reversed in the s decade. In Australia, Holden's market share dropped from Holden caused controversy in with their Holden Employee Pricing television advertisement, which ran from October to December The campaign publicised, "for the first time ever, all Australians can enjoy the financial benefit of Holden Employee Pricing".
However, this did not include a discounted dealer delivery fee and savings on factory fitted options and accessories that employees info gm lost saga indonesia.
Holden revived the Monaro coupe in Based on the VT Commodore architecture, the coupe attracted worldwide attention after being shown as a concept car at Australian auto shows. A mildly facelifted VZ model launched inintroducing the High Feature engine. Throughout the s, Opel had also been the source of many Holden models. To increase profitability, Holden looked to the South Korean Daewoo brand for replacements after acquiring a The commencement of the Holden-branded Daewoo models began with the Holden Barinawhich based on the Daewoo Kalosreplaced the Opel Corsa as the source of the Barina.
After discontinuing the Frontera and Jackaroo models inHolden was only left with one all-wheel drive model: Consequently, the Holden Rodeo was facelifted and relaunched as the Colorado in Following the government grant announcement, Kevin RuddAustralia's Prime Minister at the time, stated that production would support new jobs at the Elizabeth facility; however, this failed to take into account Holden's previous announcement, whereby jobs would be shed when production of the Family II engine ceased in late The subsidy from was more than Holden's capital investment of the same period.
FromHolden was only able to make a profit in and Industry Minister Kim Carr confirmed on 10 July that talks had been scheduled between the Australian government and Holden. Holden's ultimate survival, though, depended on continued negotiations with the Federal Info gm lost saga indonesia secure funding for the period from to —and the final decision of the global headquarters in Detroit, US.
Info gm lost saga indonesia May GM reversed their decision to descubra seus pontos fortes yahoo the Lang Lang Proving Ground and decided to keep it as part of their engineering capability in Australia. Later that year, Holden also announced plans to sell the European Astra info gm lost saga indonesia the Korean Cruze alongside each other from In DecemberBelgian entrepreneur Guido Dumarey commenced negotiations to buy the Commodore manufacturing plant in South Australia, with a view to continue producing a rebadged Zeta-based premium range of rear and all-wheel drive vehicles for local and export sales.
Holden announced on 6 February that Mark Bernhard would return to Holden as chairman and managing director, the first Australian to hold the post in 25 years. Holden's logo, of a lion info gm lost saga indonesia a stone, was introduced in Holden's Motor Body Builders appointed Rayner Hoff to design the emblem, which refers to a fable in which observations of lions rolling stones led to the invention of the wheel. It commissioned another redesign in to better represent the company.
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